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Giant Structures
It is an impossible task to select the most amazing wonders of the modern world since every year more______(1)constructions appear. Here are three giant structures which are worthy of our admiration______(2)they may have been surpassed by some more recent wonders.
The Petronas Twin Towers
The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world when they were completed in 1999.______(3)a height of 452 metres,the tall twin towers,like two thin pencils,dominate the city of Kuala Lumpur. At the 41st floor,the towers are______(4)by a bridge,symbolizing a gateway to the city. The American architect Cesar Pelli designed the skyscrapers.
Constructed of high-strength concrete,the building______(5)around 1,800 square metres of office space on every floor. And it has a shopping centre and a concert hall at the base.Other______(6)of this impressive building include double-decker lifts,and glass and steel sunshades.
The Millau Bridge
The Millau Bridge was opened in 2004 in the Tarn Valley,in southern France. At the ______(7)it was built,it was the world,5 highest bridge,______(8)over 340m at the highest point. The bridge is described as one of the most amazingly beautiful bridges in the world. It was built to ________ (9) Millau's congestion(拥堵)problems. The congestion was then caused by traffic passing from Paris to Barcelona in Spain. The bridge was built to with-stand the______(10) extreme seismic(地震的)and climatic conditions. Besides , it is guar- anteed for 120 years!
The Itaipu Dam
The Itaipu hydroelectric power plant is one of the largest constructions of its kind in the world.
It______(11)of a series of dams across the River Parana,______(12)forms a natural border between Brazil and Paraguay. Started in 1975 and taking 16 years to complete, the construction was carried out as a joint project between the two______(13).The dam is well-known for both its electricity output and its size. In 1995 it produced 78% of Paraguay's and 25% Of Brazil's______(14)needs. In its construction,the amount of iron and steel used was equivalent to over 300 Eiffel Towers.It is a______(15)amazing wonder of engineering.
A: much
B: more
C: less
D: most
D解析:根据上下文,此处要表达的是每年都会有更多绝妙的建筑物出现,A项 wonderful表示“绝妙的,极好的,精彩的”,故选A项。
在双子塔的41层,两座塔被一条桥连接着,就像是通向城市的通道,故选 D项。
根据上下文可知,此处说的是米约高架桥的建造是为了缓解交通拥堵,C项 relieve表“解除,减轻”,故选C项。
根据上下文可知,伊代普水电站包括在巴拉那河上的一系列小水坝,A项 consist表示“包括,组成”,故选A项。
根据句意和句式分析,这里是一个非限制性定语从句,引导词只能用 which,用which来代替前面提到的伊代普水电站,故选D项。
Every Dog Has His Say
Kimiko Fukuda always wondered what her dog was trying to say.Whenever she put on make-up,it would pull at her sleeve.______(46)When the dog barks,she glances at a small elec-tronic gadget(装置).The following" human" translation appears on its screen; "Please take me with you.""I realized that's how he was feeling."says Fukuda.
The gadget is called Bowlingual,and it translates dog barks into feelings.People laughed when the Japanese toymaker Takara Company made the world's first dog-human translation ma-chine in 2002 .But 300,000 Japanese dog owners bought it.______(47)
"Nobody else had thought about it."said Masahiko Kajita,who works for Takara."We spend so much time training dogs to understand our orders;what would it be like if we could understand dogs?"
Bowlingual has two parts.______(48)The translation is done in the gadget using a data-base containing every kind of bark.
Based on animal behavior research,these noises are divided into six categories:happiness, sadness,frustration,anger,declaration and desire.______(49)In this way,the database scien-tifically matches a bark to an emotion,which is then translated into one of 200 phrases.
When a visitor went to Fukuda's house recently,the dog barked a loud"wow wow".______(50)It was followed by"I'm stronger than you"as the dog growled and sniffed(嗅)at the visitor. The product will be available in US pet stores this summer for about US$120.It can store up to 100 barks,even recording the dog's emotions when the owner is away.
A: A wireless microphone is attached to the dog's collar,which sends information to the gadget held by the owner.
B: Nobody really knows how a dog feels.
C: This translated as"Don't come this way".
D: More customers are expected when the English version is launched this summer.
E: Now,the Japanese girl thinks she knows.
F: Each one of these emotions is then linked to a phrase like"Let's play","Look at me",or "Spend more time with me".
Will We Take Vacation in Spaces?
When Mike Kelly first set out to build his own private space-ferry service,he figured his bread-and-butter business would be lofting satellites into high-Earth orbit. Now he thinks he may have figured wrong.“People were always asking me when they could go,”says Kelly,who runs
Kelly Space TechnologT out of San Bernardino,Californi a.“I realized that real market is in space tourism.”
According to preliminary market surveys,there are 10,000 would-be-space-tourists willing to spend $1 million each to visit the final frontier. Space Adventure in Arlington,Virginia,has taken more than 1 30 deposits for a two-hour,$98,000 space tour tentatively(and somewhat dubiously)set to occur by 2005 .Gene Meyers of the Space Island Group says:“Space is the next exotic vacation spot.”
This may all sound great,but there are a few hurdles.Putting a simple satellite into orbit with no oxygen,life support or return trip necessary already costs an astronomical $22,000/kg.
And that doesn't include the cost of insuring rich and possibly litigious passenger. John Pike of the
Federation of American Scientists acerbically suggests that the entire group of entrepreneurs trying to corner the space tourism market have between them“just enough money to blow up one rocket.”The U .S.space agency has plenty of money but zero interest in making space less expensive for the little guys.So the little guys are racing to do what the government has failed to do:design a reusable launch system that's inexpensive,safe and reliable.Kelly Space's prototype looks like a plane that has sprouted rocket engines.Rotary Rocket in Redwood City,California,hasa booster with rotors make a helicopter-style return to Earth;Kistler Aerospace in Kirkland,Wash- ington,is piecing together its versions from old Soviet engines,shuttle-style thermal protection tiles and an elaborate parachute system.The first passenger countdowns are still years away,but bureaucrats at the Federal Aviation Administration in Washington are already informally discussing flight regulations.After all,you can't be too prepared for a trip to that galaxy far,far away.
For those who are intent on joining the 100-mile high club,Hilton and Budget are plotting to build space hotels.Before the Russian space Mir came down,some people were talking about using it as a low-rent space hotel to reduce the cost. If a space hotel is finally built in space,and if you're thinking of staying in it,you may want to check the Michelin ratings before booking yourself a suite.
Mike Kelly planned to turn his business of making bread and butter into a business that is engaged in space tourism.
A: Right
B: Wrong
C: Not mentioned
B解析:第一段的第一句话是“…he figured his bread-and-butter business would be lofting satellites into high-Earth orbit.”理解此句子的关键是bread -and -butter,作为形容词,它的意思是“基本的,日常的”,而不是“面包与黄油”。由此可见,Mike Kelly的初衷并不是投身于太空旅行,所以题干的说法是错误的。
选A的依据是第一段最后一句话:“ I realized that real market is in space tourism.”这句话表明Kelly认识到真正的市场是太空旅行,作为一个商人,他理所当然会致力于开发真正的市场。
第二段第二句话是“Space Adventure in Arlington , Virginia , has taken more than 130 deposits for a two-hour,$98,000 space tour tentatively(and somewhat dubiously)set to occur by 2005.”句子的意思是,每人交了98,000美元的定金,而不是总共98,000,从这句话中可以看出历时两个小时的太空旅行计划在2005年,该旅行是试验性的,并且在一定程度上令人质疑。因此题干的说法是错误的。
选A的依据是第三段该句话“So the little guys are racing to do what the government has failed to do : design a reusable launch system that is inexpensive , safe and reliable.”少数人在争相做政府未做成功的事情,即设计一套可以再度使用的廉价、安全、可靠的发射系统。
选A的依据是文章最后一句话“If a space hotel is finally built in space , and if you are thinking of staying in it,you may want to check the Michelin ratings before booking yourself a suite.”如果太空旅馆最终在太空建立,而你又正在考虑住在里边,在预定房间之前你或许想查看一下Michelin参数。
Eastern Quakes Can Trigger Big Shakes
In the first week of November 2011,people in central Oklahoma experienced more than two dozen earthquakes. The largest,a magnitude 5 .6 quake,shook thousands of fans in a college football stadium,caused cracks in a few buildings and rattled the nerves of many people who had never felt a quake before. Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes. If you watch the news on TV,you see reports about all sorts of natural disasters一 hurricanes,tornadoes,flooding and wildfires,to name a few. But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.
Researchers at the U. S. Geological Survey estimate that several million earthquakes rattie the globe each year. That may sound scary,but people don't feel many of the tremors because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.Many quakes happen under the ocean, and others have a very small magnitude,or shaking intensity.
A magnitude 5.8 earthquake that struck central Virginia the afternoon of August 23, 2011,was felt from central Georgia to southeastern Canada. In many urban areas,including Washington,D.C.,and New York City(Wall Street shown),people crowded the streets while engineers inspected buildings.
Scientists know about small,remote quakes only because of very sensitive electronic devices called seismometers.These devices detect and measure the size of ground vibrations
produced by earthquakes.Altogether,USGS researchers use seismometers to identify and locate about 20,000 earthquakes each year.
Although earthquakes can happen anywhere in the world,really big quakes occur only in certain areas. The largest ones register a magnitude 8 or higher and happen,on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth's tectonic plates.
Tectonic plates are huge pieces of Earth's crust,sometimes many kilometers thick. These plates cover our planet's surface like a jigsaw puzzle. Often,jagged edges of these plates temporarily lock together. When plates jostle and scrape past each other,earthquakes occur. On average,tectonic plates move very slowly一about the same speed as your fingernails grow.
But sometimes earthquakes rumble through portions of the landscape far from a plate's edges. Although less expected,these”mid-plate” tremors can do substantial damage. Some of the biggest known examples rattled the eastern half of the United States two centuries ago. Today,scientists are still puzzling over why the quakes occurred and when similar ones might occur.
Seismometers can identify and locate most of the earthquakes in China.
A: Right
B: Wrong
C: Not mentioned
C解析:题干意为“俄克拉荷马是一个经常遇到自然灾害的地区。”关键词为often,经 常。根据文中第一段第三、四句“Oklahoma is not an area of the country famous for its quakes.If you watch the news on TV,you see reports about all sorts of natural disasters一 hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding and wildfires, to name a few.”可知俄克拉荷马并不因地震 而闻名,其他类型的灾难也很少在电视上看到,由此可判断俄克拉荷马并不受灾难的眷顾。故此题说法为“错误”的。
题干意为“地震是最不可预测的自然灾害。”根据文中第一段最后一句“But the most dangerous type of natural disaster,and also the most unpredictable,is the earthquake.”可知,地震是最难预测的自然灾难。故此题说法为“正确”的。
题干意为“人们能感觉到几乎所有的地震。”关键字是few。 few是几乎没有的意思,表否定,与a few不同。文中第二段第二句“. . . but people don't feel many of the tremors because they happen in remote and unpopulated regions.”说明,在人迹罕至的地区发生的地震,人们是感觉不到的。故此题说法为“错误”的。
题干意为“八级或以上的地震基本上都发生在板块边缘。”关键字seldom, 这也是一个表否定的词汇。文中第五段第二、三句“The largest ones register a magnitude 8 or higher and happen,on average,only once each year. Such big ones typically occur along the edges of Earth's tectonic plates.”明确指出,八级或更大的地震一般发生在地壳板块边缘。故此题说法为“正确”的。
题干意为“当板块移动时就会发生地震。”根据文中第六段倒数第二句 “When plates jostle and scrape past each other earthquakes occur.”可知,板块互相挤压时才会发生地震,而不是板块一动就地震。故此题说法为“错误”的。
题干意为“200多年前袭击美国东半部的地震是最大的板块中间类型的地震。”文中并未提及 200多年前袭击美国东半部的地震是最大的板块中间类型的地震。故此说 法为“未提及”的。
A Health Profile
A health profile is a portrait of all of the factors that influence your health.To draw your health profile, you will______(51)what diseases run in your family,what health hazards you may be exposed to ______(52)work,how your daily______(53)compares to the recommended standards,how much time per week you______(54)exercising and what type of exercise you engage______(55),how stressful your work and family environments are,what kinds of illnesses you get regularly,and______(56) or not you have any one of a number of addictions.______(57)this portrait,you should have a checkup to determine how your blood,heart,and lungs are functioning.This checkup will serve______(58)a baseline,to which you can then compare later tests.
______(59)this profile is thoroughly drawn,you can begin to think about setting health priorities based______(60)your particular portrait.For example,if you drink two martinis every evening,have a high-stress______(61),are overweight,smoke a pack of cigarettes a day,and use marijuana occasional-ly on weekends,you should quit smoking first,followed______(62)losing the excess weight,reducing the stress of your job,giving up your marijuana habit,and then finally giving some______(63)to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer,and then heart disease.Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life,who is______(64)excellent health,agood look at allhealth habits and at work and home environments may suggest.changes that will______(65)him in the future.
B解析:从句子的意思看,这里应该有“需要”的意思,所以应该在C和D之间选择。need可以 。作情态动词用,也可以作实义动词用,前面既然用了will,那说明这里应该跟作实义动词用的need,故选D。
这里what引导的从句意思是:在工作时你可能面临什么不利健康的因素。at work是固定搭配,意思是“在工作”。
这句用how引导的从句意思是:你每日的饮食和推荐的标准相比之下如何。最合适的搭配是daily diet。
spend … doing…意思是“花费……做某事”,符合句意。devote后面要跟介词to,意思是“专心于,致力于”,故选C。
engage in是一个动词短语,意思是“从事……活动”。
这里空格里要求填人的是引导该宾语从句的连接词,表达“是否……”的意思,只有whether or not符合句意。
serve as是固定搭配,意思是“作为……,起……的作用”。
to be based on是个固定的表达方式,意思是“在……的基础上,以……为依据”。
work在表示“工作”的意思时是不可数的,前面有不定冠词a,所以被排除了。have a job是“有工作”的意思,符合句意,同时也与下文“reducing the stress of your job”对应。
to be followed by是“后面跟着……”的意思,符合句意。
give some thought to是固定搭配,意思是“考虑……”,符合句意。
be in good/poor health是短语,意思是“身体好/身体不好”,符合句意。
Wide World of Robots
Engineers who build and program robots have fascinating jobs. These researchers tinker(修补)with ma-
chines in the lab and write computer software to control these devices."They're the best toys out there,"
says Howie Choset at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Choset is a roboticist,a person who designs,
builds or programs robots.
When Choset was a kid,he was interested in anything that moved-cars,trains,animals.He put motors
on Tinkertoy cars to make them move.Later,in high school,he built mobile robots similar to small cars.
Hoping to continue working on robots,he studied computer science in college.But when he got to
graduate school at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena,Choset's labmates were working on
something even cooler than remotely controlled cars:robotic snakes.Some robots can move only forward,
backward , left and right. But snakes can twist(扭曲)in many directions and travel over a lot of different
types of terrain(地形)."Snakes are far more interesting than the cars,"Choset concluded.
After he started working at Carnegie Mellon,Choset and his colleagues there began developing their own
snake robots.Choset'5 team programnied robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as
sliding and inching forward.The robots also moved in ways that snakes usually don't,such as rolling.
Choset's snake robots could crawl(爬行)through the grass ,swim in a pond and even climb a flagpole.
But Choset wondered if his snakes might be useful for medicine as well. For some heart surgeries,the
doctor has to open a patient' s chest ,cutting through the breastbone. Recovering from these surgeries can be
very painful. What if the doctor could perform the operation by instead making a small hole in the body and
sending in a thin robotic snake?
Choset teamed up with Marco Zenati,a heart surgeon now at Harvard Medical School ,to investigate the
idea. Zenati practiced using the robot on a plastic model of the chest and they tested the robot in pigs.
A company called Medrobotics in Boston is now adapting the technology for surgeries on people.
Even after 15 years of working with his team's creations,"I still don't get bored of watching the motion
of my robots,"Choset says.
Snake robots could move in only four directions.
A: Right
B: Wrong
C: Not mentioned
B解析:根据第二段尤其是第二段最后一句话“Later,in high school,he built mobile robots simi-lar to small cars.”可知题干表达正确。
根据第三段倒数第二、倒数第三句话“Some robots can move only forward, backward ,left and ridit.But snakefre can twist in many direetions and travel over lot of different types of terrain." 以及第四段第二、三句话“Choset' s team programmed robots to perform the same movements as real snakes,such as sliding and inching forward.The robots also moved in ways that snakes usually don't , such as rolling."可知题干表述错误。
根据第四段第一句话“After he started working at Carnegie Mellon, Choset and his col- leagues there began developing their own snake robots.”和该段最后一句中的“Choset' s snake”可 推知题干表述正确。
文中没有提到Choset的机器蛇比别人做的能做更多的动作,只是说他的机器蛇比真蛇 能做的动作更多。故选C。
提到将机器蛇运用于心脏病治疗的价值的是文章的第五段,但文中只是说这可以减少 心脏病人做胸腔切开手术的痛苦,并没提到这可以节约时间。故选C。
倒数第三段提到Zenati将机器蛇应用于塑料胸腔模型,他和Choset在猪的身上作了测 试。倒数第二段说Medrobotics公司将这项技术应用到了心脏病人身上。题干表述与文章不 一致,因为Zenati并没在人身上测试该技术。故选B。
提到Medrobotics公司的只有倒数第二段,但该段只是说这个公司将机器蛇技术应用到 了外科手术上,并没提到该公司因此获得了很大的收益。故选C。第3部分:概括大意与完成句子
Approaches to Understanding Intelligences
It pays to be smart,but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician,but you might not be a good reader.Each of us is different.
Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.
Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words,numbers,or pictures.They do well on individual or group tests,and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test,do the same on all tests.
Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brains of intelligent people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.
Howard Gardner,a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education,has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn't be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists,he doesn't think it tells much about.the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He thinks that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.
Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example,when one part of the brain is injured,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of brain damage can still sing.So,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence:linguistic,mathematical,spatial, musical , interpersonal,intrapersonal , body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic.
According to Gardner,schools should______.
A:test students'IQs
B:train students who do poorly on tests
C:focus on、finding the most intelligent students
D:promote development of all intelligences
The Benefits of Lifelong Learning for Adults
Lifelong learning is the process of keeping your mind and body engaged一at any age一by actively pursuing knowledge and experience.In fact,it has many benefits.Firstly,it keeps the mind sharp and it improves the memory.Secondly,it improves self-confidence and offers an opportunity to try something new. Thirdly,it gives the learner the feeling of accomplishment. Also,it offers the learner the opportunity to keep in touch with people who share with him/her the same interests and make new acquaintances.Finally,it offers an opportunity to learn a new skill or trade.
Achieving retirement means having a lot of spare time and becoming more stressed and bored. However,some adults think that learning at that age is a way to get rid of this situation of boredom and stress.For them learning should be a lifelong process and even retirement should be an opportunity to try new things rather than being passive and pessimistic.
Lifelong learning helps you remember things better.
C:Not mentioned
A解析:本题给出的信息是正确的。原文是:"firstly, it keeps the mind sharp…"。
本题给出的信息是正确的。原文是“…it(即lifelong learning) improves the memory”。
本题给出的信息是错误的。原文是:"…it(即lifelong learning) offers an opportunity to try something new”。
本题给出的信息是错误的。原文是:" Also , it offers the learner the opportunity to keep in touch with people who share with him/her the same interests and make new acquaintances"。
本题给出的信息是正确的。原文是:"Achieving retirement means having a lot of spare time and becoming more stressed and bored”。
本题给出的信息是错误的。原文是:"For them learning should be a lifelong process and even retirement should be an opportunity to try new things rather than being passive and pessimistic”。
The doctor may recommend limiting the amount of fat in your diet.
C解析:本题考查的是对动词的认知能力。本句意思:医生会建议你限制饮食中的脂肪含量。recommend劝告、推荐、建议。选项A order命令。选项B insist坚持。选项C suggest建议、推荐、劝告,例如:I suggested going for a walk.我建议去散步。选项D demand要求。 recommend和suggest意思最接近,所以选C。
The Roadrunner
The roadrunner(走雀)lives in the desert zone of the southwestern United States and
northern Mexico._________(1)People gave it its name because they usually see it
running across a road,but of course,it spends more time among the plants of the desert
than it does on roads.
The roadrunner is quite a large bird-about 45 centimeters long and 25 centimeters high.
______(2)It holds its head straight out in front and its tail sticks straight out in back.
It takes long steps and can run 30 kilometers an hour.
It eats an amazing variety of food.Although it eats plants once in a while,it is mostly a
meat eater.Most of its diet is insects,but it also catches birds,mice,and other small
animals.It is even brave enough to catch snakes and black widow spiders(蜘蛛).
_________(3)When he finds one,he gives her presents a snake to eat or a tiny
branch of a tree to use in building a nest.Then they build their nest,the female lays eggs,
and they raise their young.
_________(4)One couple in Arizona feeds a pair of roadrunners that come once at
a time every day and make a noise outside the window.If someone doesn't give the bird a
piece of hamburger immediately,the bird knocks on the window with its beak(喙).
Roadrunners are not shy.
__________(5)They will stand on a chair or table and watch television,and they
seem really interested in what is happening on the program.
A: Roadrunners can also become friendly with people.
B: People laugh when it runs because it looks so funny.
C: Itisabird,but it can only fly about as much as a chicken can.
D:In early spring,the bird doesn't eat anything.
E: Another couple feeds a pair of roadrunners that go right into the house.
F: In the spring,a male roadrunner begins looking for a female as a mate.
In the situation comedy,a traditional format for television shows,the same characters appear repeatedly in humorous episodes.
A: respectively
B: again and again
C: simultaneously
D: briefly
B解析:句意:在传统的电视剧形式情景喜剧中,同一批人物在搞笑的剧集中反复出现。句中的 situation comedy意为“情景喜剧”。repeatedly意为“重复地、反复地”; B . again and again意为“反复地”; A. respectively意为“分别地,各个地”; C . simultaneously意为“同时”;D. briefly意为“简姐地”。
1. The word “ecosystem” is short for ecological(生态的)system. An ecosystem is where living creatures expand within a given area. You can say that an ecosystem is the natural environment where biological organisms(生物)such as plants,animals and humans co-exist in this world. So naturally that includes you and me. Yes,we are all members of an ecosystem!
2 .There are different kinds of ecosystems depending on the type of surface or environ-ment. Most are naturally made such as the ocean or lake and the desert or rainforest.Some are man-made or artificial to encourage co-habitation(同居)between living and non-living things in a monitored environment,such as a zoo or garden.
3 .Plants make up the biggest group of biological creatures within an ecosystem,and that's because they are the natural food producers for everyone. Plants raised in the earth need air and collect sunlight to help them grow. When they grow,the plants and its fruits or flowers eventually become a source of food to animals,microorganisms(微生物)and even hu- mans,of course. Food is then converted to energy for the rest of us to function,and this hap-pens in a never-ending cycle until the living creatures die and break up back in the earth.
4 .Ecosystems are the basis of survival for all living things.We depend on plants and ani-mals for food. In order for us to exist,we need to grow and care about other organisms. We also need to care for the non-living things within our environment like our air and water so we can continue living as a population. Since plants,animals and humans are all of various species(物种),we all play a role in maintaining the ecosystem.
5 .To preserve our ecosystems,we should stop using too much energy,which happens when we consume more than our share of resources. Humans should not disturb the natural habitat(栖息地)of plants and animals,and allow them to grow healthily for the cycle to con-tinue. Too many people in a habitat can mean displacement(搬迁): imagine being thrown out of your home because there is no more space for everyone. Worse,overpopulation can also ru- in the environment and cause destruction of existing plants and animals.
Plants are essential in an ecosystem because to other living creatures they are______.
A: our share of resources
B: a biological creature
C: a given area
D: the maintenance of the ecosystem
E: the source of food
F: various species
E解析:文章第二段主要讲根据不同的表层类型和环境类型,有各种不同的生态系统。主题句之后就是介绍不同的生态系统。B项What Are Different Types of Ecosystems? (有哪些不同类型的生态系统?)符合本段主题,故选B。
文章第三段主要讲植物是生态系统中最大的群体,因为它要为所有生态系统的成员制造食物。地球上的植物需要空气和阳光的帮助才能生长,在生长过程中,植物及其果实和花朵最终变成动物、微生物和人类的食物来源,然后食物转化成能量使个体发挥功能,这个过程循环进行,直到生物死亡,在土壤中分解。E项How Does an Ecosystem Work?(生态系统如何运行?)符合本段主题,故选E。
文章第四段主要讲生态系统为所有生物提供最基本的生存模式。我们需要从动植物身上获得食物,我们也需要空气和水来继续生存。动植物和人作为不同的物种,在维持生态系统上都发挥着作用。F项Why Are Ecosystems Important?(生态系统为什么重要?)符合本段主题,故选F。
文章第五段主要讲为了保护生态系统,我们要停止过度使用能源,不应该扰乱动植物的栖息地,应该控制人口数量。A项What Can We Do to Help Protect Ecosystems?(我们能做些什么来帮助保护生态系统?)符合本段主题,故选A。
题干意为“在一个生态系统中,植物、动物和人类共同生活在一定地区。”文章第一段第三句指出,你可以说生态环境是生物,比如植物、动物、人类,共同生活的自然环境。C项a given area(一定地区)与原句意思相符,故选C。
题干意为“在一个生态系统中植物非常重要,因为对于其他生物来说,它们是食物来源。”文章第三段第一句指出,植物是生态系统中最大的群体,因为它要为所有生态系统的成员制造食物。E项the source of food(食物来源)与原句意思相符,故选E。
题干意为“植物、动物和人类在维持生态系统中都发挥作用。”文章第四段最后一句指出,植物、动物和人属于不同物种,我们在维持生态系统中都发挥作用。D项the maintenance of the ecosystem(生态系统的维持)与原句意思相符,故选D。
题干意为“为了保护我们的生态系统,我们应该只使用我们的那份资源。” 文章第五段第一句指出,为了保护生态系统,我们应该停止过度使用能源,除了我们的那份资源外不应该消耗别的资源。A项our share of resources(我们的那份资源)与原句意思相符,故选A。
Please Fasten Your Seatbelts
Severe turbulence(湍流)can kill aircraft passengers. Now,in test flights over the Rocky
Mountains , NASA(美国航空航天局)engineers have successfully detected clear-air turbulence up to 10 seconds before an aircraft hits it.
Clear-air turbulence often catches pilots by surprise.Invisible to radar,it is difficult to forecast and can hurl(用力抛出去)passengers about the cabin. In December 1 997 , one passenger died and a hundred others were injured when unexpected rough air caused a United Airlines flight over the Pacific to drop 300 meters in a few seconds.
However,passengers can avoid serious injury by fastening their seatbelts.“It is the only antidote(对策)for this sort of thing,”says Rod Bogue,project manager at NASA's Dryden Flight
Research Center in Edwards,California.
The centre's new turbulence detector is based on lidar,or laser radar. Laser pulses are sent ahead of the plane and these are then reflected back by particles in the air. The technique depends on the Doppler effect.The wavelength of the light shifts according to the speed at which the particles are approaching. In calm air,the speed equals the plane's airspeed.But as the particles swirl(打漩)in rough air,their speed of approach increases or decreases rapidly .The rate of change in speed corresponds to the severity(激烈程度)of the turbulence.
In a series of tests that began last month,a research jet flew repeatedly into disturbed air over the mountain ridges(山脉)near Pueblo , Colorado. The lidar detector spotted turbulence between 3 and 8 kilometers ahead,and its forecasts of strength and duration corresponded closely with the turbulence that the plane encountered.
Bogue says that he had“a comfortable amount of time”to fasten his seatbelt. The researchers are planning to improve the lidar's range with a more powerful beam.The system could be installed on commercial aircraft in the next few years.
The last paragraph tells us,among other things,that_______.
A: the lidar detector needs improvement
B: many airlines are interested in the system
C: passengers often forget to fasten their seatbelts
D: the lidar detector can be used in a wide range of areas
A解析:本题问的是“clear-air turbulence”在文中指什么?turbulence的意思就是湍流,根据第二段第二句的说法,clear-air turbulence指的是雷达无法测到的一种turbulence,所以选项B为正确答案。
此题问气流探测器通过测量什么来判断它的激烈程度?第四段最后一句说“The rate of change in speed corresponds to the severity(激烈程度)of the turbulence.”所以选项 D为正确答案。
此题是根据最后一段的第二句“The researchers are planning to improve the lidar's range with a more powerful beam.”出的题,这句的意思是说,研究人员正计划采用功能更强大的光束来提高雷达的侧定范围。据此可以判断,雷达尚需改进,故A为正确答案。
What are my chances of promotion if I stay here?
D解析:如果我留下来,有哪些晋升的机会呢?retirement:退休;advertisement:广告;replacement: 替代;advancement:提升,晋升,和promotion意思相近。
Late-night Drinking
Coffee lovers,be careful.Having a quick "pick-me-up" cup of coffee late in the day will interrupt your
sleep. As well as being a stimulant(兴奋剂),caffeine interrupts the flow of melatonin(褪黑激素),the
brain hormone that sends people into a sleep.
Melatonin levels normally start to rise about two hours before bedtime.Levels then peak between 2 am
and 4 am , before falling again. " It 's the neurohormone(神经激素)that controls our sleep and tells our
body when to sleep and when to wake,"says Maurice Ohayon of the Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research
Center at Stanford University in California. But researchers in Israel have found that caffeinated coffee halves
the body'S levels of this sleep hormone.
Lotan Shilo and a team at the Sapir Medical center in Tel Aviv University found that six volunteers slept
less well after a cup of caffeinated coffee than after drinking the same amount of decaf(脱咖啡因咖啡).On
average,subjects slept 336 minutes per night after drinking caffeinated coffee,compared with 415 minutes
after decaf. They also took half an hour to drop off,twice as long as usual.
In the second phase of the experiment,the researchers woke the volunteers every three hours and asked
them to give a urine(尿)sample.Shilo measured concentrations of a breakdown product of melatonin.The
results suggest that melatonin concentrations in caffeine drinkers were half those in decaf drinkers.In a paper
accepted for publication in Sleep Medicine,the researchers suggest that caffeine blocks production of the
enzyme(酶)that drives melatonin production.
Because it can take many hours to eliminate caffeine from the body.Ohayon recommends that coffee
lovers switch to decaf after lunch.
The author mentions "pick-me-up" to indicate that_______.
A:melatonin levels need to be raised
B:coffee is a stimulan
C:neurohormone can wake us up
D:caffeine can balance our brain hormone
B解析:pick-me-up 指提神饮料,也就是一种刺激物,在这篇文章里具体指咖啡。故选B。
第三段涉及一个实验,这个实验的目的是测试含咖啡因咖啡和脱咖啡因咖啡对睡眠的 影响,该段主要谈论的是这个实验的结果。故选A。
第四段是第三段实验的继续,是该实验的第二个阶段。研究人员通过对志愿者的尿进 行化验发现,咖啡因摄入者体内的褪黑激素(melatonin)仅为非咖啡因摄入者的一半。故选A。
文章最后一段最后一句话说:"Ohayon建议爱喝咖啡的人午饭后应该换喝脱咖啡因咖 啡”。故选B。第三篇 本文主要讲述了阿司匹林作为一种止痛药,它的发明及畅销过程,以及发现它可以治疗心脏 病发作的事情。
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